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Papers are to be chosen from following EJPPS issues.

Finalists' Papers are to be chosen from the following

Volume 21, No 4

Releasing capacity of pre-sterile cotton swabs for discharging sampled microorganisms
Author: Ravikrishna Satyada and Tim Sandle
Surface monitoring by using swabs forms a regular part of environmental monitoring of cleanrooms. There are different factors that affect swab recovery, from tip type to enumeration method. One factor with swabs where the microorganisms are detached from the swab tip and which are then membrane filtered is the period of vortex mixing. This paper discusses microbial surface sampling, and the factors that affect swab recovery, and presents some experimental data where vortex times are considered for a range of microorganisms. The study outcome indicates that 15 seconds of
vortex mixing is sufficient to obtain microbial recoveries from the swab tip above 50%

Volume 22 Issue 1

Microbial contamination risks of the surface of surgical 
clothing systems – an observational study
Author: Catinka Ullmann, Bengt Ljungqvist and Berit Reinmuller
Abstract: The personnel in an operating room are usually the main source of microorganisms and the correct clothing system for staff is, therefore, of high importance for patient safety. The same surgical clothing system is often worn during a complete working day/shift, i.e. no change of clothing between operations, and the personnel may also leave the surgical department/section for different reasons. The aim of this study was to investigate the risk of contaminating the outside of the surgical clothing during a day of use and also to evaluate if there is a higher risk of contamination if staff visit areas
outside the surgical department.

Use of contact plates to perform environmental settle 
plate testing
Author: Aleshia Samson, Andrew Sage and David Jones
Abstract: An evaluation was performed to investigate the use of contact plates in place of Petri plates to perform environmental monitoring settle plates. A Petri plate has approximately 2.5 times the surface area of a contact plate and a different agar profile for exposure to air. Petri plates also have plastic walls that extend above the agar surface and may affect air flows. To evaluate the possible use of contact plates, analysis of capture and recovery of bioburden was performed in a number of different environments, with differing numbers of exposed plates. Overall, a good correlation was shown when two contact plates were used as a substitute for one Petri plate 
with a 4-hour exposure time. The ability to use contact plates for a
settle plate test allows the use of a single consumable, the contact plate, to be stocked for environmental monitoring testing

Volume 22 Issue 2

Assessment of degree of risk from sources of microbial contamination in cleanrooms; 3: Overall application
Author: W Whyte and T Eaton
Abstract: A method of calculating the degree of risk of sources of microbial contamination to products manufactured in cleanrooms has been described in two previous articles. The degree of risk was ascertained by calculating the number of microbes deposited (NMD) onto, or into, a product from each source of contamination. The fist article considered airborne sources, the second article considered surface and liquid sources, and this final article considers all three sources. The NMD method can be applied to various manufacturing methods and designs of cleanrooms but was illustrated by a vial-filling process in a unidirectional airflow (UDAF) workstation located in a non UDAF cleanroom. The same example was used in this article to demonstrate how to control the microbial risk, and included the use of a restricted access barrier system.  The risk to a patient is not only dependent on microbial contamination of pharmaceutical products during manufacture in cleanrooms and controlled zones but the chance that any microbes deposited in the product will survive and multiply during its shelf life,
and this aspect of patient risk is considered.

Some aspects of protective efficacy of surgical clothing systems concerning airborne microorganisms based on
results from measurements in a dispersal chamber and during surgical procedures
Author: Catinka Ullmann, Bengt Ljungqvist and Berit Reinmuller
Abstract: The main source of airborne microorganisms in an operating room is the staff and the patient. In order to reduce
airborne bacteria-carrying particles from the staff, it is important that the surgical team wears a functional clothing system. This paper compares results from measurement studies of the protective efficacy, i.e. the source strength, of different surgical clothing systems. The studies were performed in a dispersal chamber and during ongoing surgery. The results show that the fabric of the clothing system, the level of the staff activity (high or low) and the use of knee-length boots or not, have considerable influence on the source strength, i.e. microbial air cleanliness in the operating room.